Thyroid & Parathyroid
The thyroid and parathyroid are separate glands located in the neck. Each serves an important function: the thyroid generates a hormone that regulates the body’s metabolism, while the parathyroid controls the level of calcium in the blood. Together, they are responsible for many of the body’s daily functions.
The thyroid gland produces thyroid hormone (TH) that controls your body’s energy production and consumption.
This hormone helps regulate a variety of body processes including heart rate, body temperature and how quickly you burn calories. When too much or too little hormone is generated, your health is negatively affected.
Hyperthyroidism is the name given to a disorder that is the result of too much TH hormone. This causes the metabolism to speed up, leading to rapid or irregular heartbeat, anxiety, irritability, nervousness, fatigue, heat intolerance, excessive sweating, tremors, weight loss and increased bowel movements.
Hyperthyroidism can be caused by an autoimmune disorder known as Grave’s disease, nodules, goiter, inflammation of the thyroid gland and too much iodine. The condition is usually treated with medications such as beta-blockers, antithyroid medications like methimazole, radioactive iodine or surgery.
When the opposite occurs and too little TH hormone is produced, the metabolism slows down and results in a condition known as hypothyroidism. Symptoms include depression, fatigue, sore muscles, dry skin, puffy face, swollen legs, weight gain, constipation and sensitivity to cold.
An autoimmune disorder called Hasihomoto’s thyroiditis is the most common cause of hypothyroidism. Others include an inflammation of the thyroid gland called lymphocytic thyroiditis, thyroid destruction following radioactive iodine treatment or surgery, pituitary gland injury and iodine deficiency. Treatment for this disorder involves life-long therapy with synthetic thyroid hormone.
When is surgery indicated for thyroid gland disease?
In some instances, surgery for thyroid gland disease may be recommended. These include:
- Thyroid nodules
- Noncancerous, symptomatic (pain, swelling, hoarseness and swallowing or breathing difficulties) lumps forming within the thyroid gland
- Non-symptomatic but suspicious lumps that must be evaluated for possibility of cancer
- Cancerous lumps, proven by biopsy
- Thyroid conditions
- When they interfere with hormone production, and medical treatment alone is not effective
Thyroid surgery is known as a thyroidectomy. Two types of procedures are performed: a total thyroidectomy to remove the entire gland or a thyroid lobectomy, which removes part of the gland.
In a total thyroidectomy, the entire gland is removed. In cases of known cancer in the gland, the surrounding lymph nodes are also removed, and the patient is given medications to suppress thyroid hormone production, in addition to radioactive iodine.
The parathyroid is a group of glands that produce a hormone (PTH) to regulate calcium and phosphorous levels in the body.
Bone and tooth development and strength are dependent on calcium. As with the thyroid gland, too much or too little PTH causes a variety of medical problems.
Hyperparathyroidism occurs when too much PTH is secreted into the bloodstream. This creates an imbalance of high calcium levels and low phosphorous levels. Symptoms include osteoporosis, kidney stones, bone and joint pain, weakness, lethargy, loss of concentration, depression, loss of appetite, constipation, nausea and vomiting. The cause may be linked to a benign tumor or enlarged parathyroid gland. Surgery is the preferred treatment for hyperparathyroidism that results from an enlarged parathyroid gland.
When too little PTH is produced, calcium levels in the blood drop while phosphorous levels rise. This condition is known as hypoparathyroidism and causes weakness, anxiety, fatigue, muscle aches and cramps, headaches, muscle spasms, cataracts, depression, mood swings, memory loss and tingling sensations in the fingers, toes and lips.
Injury to the parathyroid glands, endocrine disorders and genetic conditions are the most common causes of hypoparathyroidism. Hypoparathyroidism can also be a side effect of total thyroidectomy surgery. Calcium carbonate and vitamin D supplements are given to restore the proper balance of calcium and phosphorous in the body.
Call DeFatta ENT & Allergy at (715) 828-2368 for more information or to schedule an appointment.